THE MOKI MESSENGER
Due to a death in her family, Beverly was not able to publish the Moki Messenger for the month of April. Janice and Jill have done their best to put the paper out, but it is not the same without Beverly. We all send her our love and best wishes at this most difficult time.
Old Spanish Trail Lecture Series, Southern Ute Cultural Center & Museum, 10-11:30 a.m.
April 6, Otis Halfmoon;
May 25, James Goss.
Sunday Lecture Series, Museum of Indian Arts & Culture, Santa Fe, 2:00 p.m.
April 14, Pottery with Jody Naranjo (Santa Clara Pueblo), Russell Sanchez (San Ildefonso Pueblo), and John Yellowbird Samora (Taos Pueblo).
May 5, Diverse Arts with Ross Chaney (Osage/Cherokee) and Cliff Fragua (Jemez Pueblo). Limited seating. Free with museum admission. Information: 505-476-1250.
Southwest Seminars. Mondays, 6 p.m., Hotel Santa Fe, NM. Mar. 19-May 27. Weekly lecture series honors work of The Archaeological Conservancy with lectures by distinguished scholars. (505) 466-2775.
Archaeological Society of NM "Life on the Rio Grande", May 3-4, Albuquerque, NM;
International Federation of Rock Art Organizations Congress, May 26-31, Albuquerque, NM;
2013 International Rock Art Congress, May 26-31, 2013, Albuquerque.
Society for Industrial Archaeology Annual Conference, May 30-June 2, St. Paul and Minneapolis, MN;
Paleoamerican Odyssey Conference, Oct. 17-19, 2013, Santa Fe.
2013 American Rock Art Research Association Invites Scientists, Researchers, Educators, Conservators, to XVII International Congress of IFRAO in Conjunction with ARARA 2013 Conference. Marriott Pyramid North, Albuquerque. May 26-31.
SJBAS needs volunteer PAAC Coordinator, short term. Contact Andy Guilliford.
Apr. 12-15, Montrose - Prehistoric Ceramics Description & Analysis.
Apr. 18, 25, Denver - Basic Site Surveying Techniques (1&2).
May 2, 9, Denver - Basic Site Surveying Techniques (3&4).
May 4-8, Pawnee Buttes - Summer Training Survey.
May 16, 18, Denver - Basic Site Surveying Techniques (5&6).
May 21-24, Pawnee Buttes - Summer Training Survey.
May 23, 30, Denver - Basic Site Surveying Techniques (7&8).
June 7-9, Fountain - Rock Art Studies.
June 21-23, Alamosa - Historical Archaeology.
Edge of Cedars Museum, Blanding, UT. Upper Sand Island Rock Art Recording Project. Jan. 26 - Dec. 30, 2013. CAS members have been involved in the project. If you head to Sand Island to view the rock art (take binoculars) be sure to stop at the exhibit on your way.
Denver Art Museum thru April 28. Georgia O'Keeffe in New Mexico."
CU Museum of Natural History, thru April 2013. M-F, 9-5, S-S 10-4 pm, 15th and Broadway, Boulder. CU's efforts assisting in the recent designation of Chimney Rock as a national monument, highlighting the archaeo-astronomy and archaeology of the site.
Ancient SW: Peoples, Pottery and Place (Summary, SW Arch Today) a new exhibit curated by Steve Lekson, features more than 100 rarely viewed ancient SW pots from one of the museum's collections and photographs of ancient SW ruins by aerial photographer Adriel Heisey. This exhibition takes visitors through more than 1,000 years of SW history. http://bit.ly/Yoxupt.
Autry Center thru June 23, 2013, Exhibits Highlight Katsinas as Window onto Hopi World; Brings together Katsinas, Spirits or Deities of SW Indians, Yearly Cycle Beginning in Feb. and Ending in July
Colorado Hist. Museum, Archaeology and Historic Preservation Month, May 17-19.
Amerind Foundation, Dragoon, AZ. Two-year exhibit. Interwoven Traditions: the Cultural Legacy of SW Textiles features rugs and other textiles from the Amerind's collection, including some treasures from Navajo, Hopi, Tarahumara, Rio Grande, and other weavers. (502-586-3666, www.amerind.org)
Greatest Photographs of the Amer. West, from Nat'l Geographic Society's Archives on Display at Ten Museums Across the US. (Summary, Denver Post, Dec. 16, 2012) Through April, more than 75 photos at ten museums (Booth Western Art Mus., Catersville, GA; Buffalo Bill Hist. Cntr., Cody, WY; C.M. Russell Mus., Great Falls, MT; Eiteljorg Mus. of Amer. Indians and Western Art, Indianapolis, IN; Gilcrease Mus., Tulsa, OK; National Cowboy & Western Heritage Mus., Oklahoma City, OK; Nat'l Geographic Mus., DC; National Mus. of Wildlife Art, Jackson Hole, WY; Rockwell Mus. of Western Art, Corning, NY; and Stark Mus. of Art, Orange, TX), collectively "Mus. West,".
NM History Museum/Palace of Governors, Telling NM: Stories from Then and Now; 500 years of history. Long term; Santa Fe Found: Fragments of Time, Historical and archaeological roots of our oldest capital city. Long term; Tesoros de Doción, Bultos and retablos dating from late 1700s to 1900. Long term; Segesser Hide Paintings, Earliest known depictions of colonial life in the US. Long term. Cowboys Real and Imagined, April 14. Exhibition opening. Learn about history of NM cowboys and how they shaped the present SW. (505) 476-5100; nmhistorymuseum.org.
Pawnee Indian Museum, Republic, KS. Thru Sept. 30. Edward S. Curtis Photographs: A Sacred Legacy showcases numerous Curtis photos, some original prints from the early 1900s. This exhibit will be displayed in four-month installments, with the first being Plains Indians, the second SW tribes, the third NW tribes and the fourth native Alaskans. (785) 361-2255, www.kshs.org/pawnee_
Activities of Interest.
Free Entrance Days in National Parks. Apr. 22-26, Nat'l Park Week; Aug. 25, NPS Birthday; Sept. 28,
Nat'l Public Lands Day; and Nov. 9-11, Veterans' Day Weekend.
May is Arch. and Hist. Preservation Month ("AHPM") with Theme of Building Communities: Celebrating 20 Years of the State Historical Fund. AHPM is hosting a two-day session, May 18-19, of archaeology and historic preservation activities, both inside and out of the History Colorado Center in Denver, a weekend of hands-on archaeology and preservation activities. AHPM is compiling a statewide website Calendar of Events. Submit your event through the online Event Submission Form, www.AHPM-Colorado.org.
Fort Lewis College ("FLC") Arch. Field School; June 2-July 5, 2013, at Ridges Basin. The goals of this field school are to introduce students to archaeological field methods and provide them with an understanding of, and experience in, cultural resource management ("CRM"). The program will include limited arch. survey, excavation, and extensive site documentation at three Basketmaker III/Pueblo I sites in Ridges Basin, situated on the north shore of Lake Nighthorse. Students will learn other valuable skills, including digital and manual mapping, surface and subsurface sampling, and field-to-laboratory procedures. A series of evening lectures will inform students about the project's research agenda and provide background in archaeological research deign, cultural resource management law, and ethics. There are two courses: ANTH 369: Field Training in Archaeology and ANTH 403: Advanced Archaeological Field Techniques. The former is open to students who have completed ANTH 201: Intro to Arch. (or the equivalent at another institution), while the latter is available to students who have previously attended a field school and are looking to gain supervisory experience. Each class provides six credits. Both count towards an anthropology major, archaeology minor, and/or the completion of a certificate in cultural resources management at FLC. The field school will be followed in summer session III (July 7-Aug. 9) by ANTH 430: Advanced Topics in SW Archaeology, where students who have completed the field school will gain experience (and possible author credit) by analyzing and reporting on data collected during fieldwork. This 4-credit class, which will meet on campus in the arch. lab, also counts toward an anthropology major, archaeology minor, and/or completion of a CRM certificate. The tuition is $200/credit for CO residents and $670/credit for non-residents, or total tuition for residents of $1,200 and non-residents of $4,020. Enrolled tribal members are eligible for tuition waiver. Students must pay $55/40/credit ($332.40 for six credits) in mandatory student fees. Tuition does not cover transportation, housing, or food. The arch. program provides transportation to and from the field site. However, students should provide their own transportation to travel elsewhere during evenings/weekends. On-campus housing is available to non-residents, costing between $665 and $850. To apply: download and complete the application form (http://www.fortlewis.edu/anthropology/FieldSchool.aspx). Submit to Dr. Charles Riggs (e-mail: email@example.com); office: CSWS 280; mailing address: 1000 Rim Drive, Durango, CO 81301 by April 1, 2013.
2013 CASQuarterly Board Meetings. July 27, Cortez; Oct. 4, Loveland
SJBAS Upcoming Field Trips: (DT=Day Trip; TL=Trip Leaders; TPL=Trip Limit) Apr. 18-20. Bluff UT Area. (TLs: Barbara & Lyle Hancock, firstname.lastname@example.org, 970-764-4531. This 3D/2N CCT will have a TPL = 12. A HC/4WD is required but local carpooling available. There will be several short (<1 mi.) hikes to both ruin and petroglyph sites. (space available as of 2/15) Apr. 27-28. Ute Mountain Ute Tribal Park Service Weekend. (TLs: Kathleen and Jim Shadell, 970-247-5597 and Richard Robinson). No TPL. HC/4WD preferred, carpooling available. DT/CC. Hisatsinom Chapter will join us for a day of labor on a needed project and, in exchange, a tour of sites not always open to the public. Bring gloves, hat, tools, and lots of cold water. Work day only option available. (space available) May 11. Alkali Ridge, CO. (TL: Diane Skinner, 970-247-0849). TPL = 7 (for each chapter). There will be a moderate hike on a mesa top with Jerry Fetterman, well-known archaeologist, to view this area in the CANM cear the CO-UT state line. A large PI site is being considered. Getting a permit, weather conditions or schedule may dictate the actual location or date. We will join with the Hisatsinom Chapter. (FULL - Sign up for waiting list.) The list is often contacted due to drop outs. May 12. Durango Walking Tour. (Contact: Mary Ann Hiller, 970-259-5170). Approximately one-mile walk, escorted by Dr. Andrew Gulliford through Durango Historic District to listen to the stories of the buildings. (space available) May 22-24. Jemez Mountains. (TL: Janice and Brooks Taylor). TPL = 20 for this 3D/2N CCT trip). May need HC/4WD to visit many sites on the east side of Jemez River. Other areas will be visited based on time and conditions. Registration preference will be given to those registered for last year's cancelled trip and those who intend to participate in the duration of the trip. June 8. Dalla Mountain Park. (TLs: Kathleen and Jim Shadell, 970-247-4497). TPL=None. Short DT to an area above Durango that has charcoal pictographs unknown to many in our area. Aug. 20. Ames Power Plan near Telluride. (TLs: Bev and Bob Danielson, 970-385-1058). This DT has no TPL and will be to the site where a technological advance made a tremendous improvement to both the health of miners and the mines' profit. Wed., 8/21 to Sun. 8/25. Range Creek and Nine Mile Canyon, UT, near Price. (TLs: Marlo and Gail Schulz, 970-946-5234, or email@example.com) Range Creek is a remote canyon filled with Fremont rock art, artifacts and ruins that has been protected by the Wilcox family who owned the canyon for many years and kept it in pristine condition with no visitation. It is the most complete record of the Fremont culture in existence. The College of Eastern UT has conducted field schools and excavations in the canyon for several years. Nine Mile Canyon is said to be the greatest gallery of rock art in the world. It is part of a 70-mile Backcountry Byway, and provides easy access to view this incredible rock art. We will drive to Price on Wed., 8/21 and check into our motel. Thurs., 8/22, we will spend the entire day viewing the rock art in Nine Mile Canyon. Fri., 8/23, we will tour the Anthropology and Paleontology Museums at the College of Eastern UT Prehistoric Museum. We will then drive to the trailhead of Range Creek, arriving in mid to late afternoon to set up camp and get ready to tour Range Creek all day Sat., 8/24. We will return to camp Sat. evening, with the option of driving out and getting a motel for the night. We will leave the trailhead on Sun., 8/25 to return home. We will tour Range Creek with Jeanie and Butch Jensen from Tavaputs Ranch, on the Tavaputs Plateau above Range Creek. They were raised in the canyon and are from the early ranching families living in the canyon. We toured with them in Sept. 2009 and enjoyed a marvelous tour. Cost is $150/person for the tour. Tips for the tour guides are appropriate. This is a tour in Tavaputs Ranch vehicles, driven by guides, with many, many stops to view rock art and ruins, sometimes with spotting scopes provided by the guides. Lunch is included with the all day tour. There are 22 tour slots. To go, we must have your reservation and a $50 deposit ASAP. If you haven't made a reservation and sent your $50 deposit, made out to "Gail Schulz," by June 1, 2013, you may still be able to go if Tavaputs Ranch has not filled any slots we have returned to them because we could not fill them. The $50.00 deposit is nonrefundable. If you should have to cancel before the trip, you will need to find someone who is able to go in your place and have them reimburse you for your deposit. To make reservations, please send your check for $50 to Gail Schulz, 114 Schulz Rd., Hesperus, CO 81326. She made a deposit to Tavaputs Ranch to secure our 22 tour slots and would like to be reimbursed ASAP. A 4-wheel drive vehicle is needed to reach the Range Creek Trailhead. The group will stay in a motel in Price on Wed. and Thurs. nights, then camp at the Range Creek Trailhead on Fri. and Sat. nights. This is not a physically demanding trip and can be enjoyed without long hikes. For those who joined the Sept. 2009 trip, Jeanie says much more has been discovered through field school excavations and is excited to show us the new findings.
SJBAS Field Trip Reports
Jan. 31 - Feb. 4. “Missions and Forts of Southern Arizona” submitted by Gail and Marlo Schulz
Sixteen SJBAS members took a break from Durango cold and snow to enjoy a bit warmer weather in Tucson AZ. Gail and Marlo Schulz led "Missions and Forts of Southern Arizona". Special thanks to Beverly Danielson who provided vital assistance in choosing restaurants and making reservations for the group. Special thanks also go to former SJBAS member Gail LaDage who gave us a great referral for touring the Laboratory of Tree Ring Research on the University of Arizona campus. Our first stop was the Arizona State Museum on the University of Arizona campus where we viewed 150 choice specimens from the museum's 20,000 whole-vessel collection of pottery from the American Southwest and Northern Mexico. We also viewed part of the collection on display in the pottery vault through viewing windows and on computer screens. These pots were stunningly beautiful, unique examples of the extensive pottery-making technology of the American Southwest and Northern Mexico. We were given a very informative tour of the "Paths of Life: American Indians of the Southwest" exhibit representing the history, culture, origins and lifeways of 10 Native cultures. Special emphasis was placed on five cultures in this area: Yaqui, Tohono O'Odham, Apache, Navajo and Hopi. We toured the Laboratory of Tree Ring Research at the University of Arizona with Dr. Jeffrey S. Dean, Professor Emeritus, as our very gracious and knowledgeable guide. The LTRR was established in 1937 by A. E. Douglass, who founded the modern science of dendrochronology. The LTRR website states: "The Tree-Ring Lab is recognized worldwide as a preeminent center for the advancement of tree-ring techniques and the broad application of dendrochronology in the social and environmental sciences.". The lab is located under the U of AZ football stadium and is in the process of moving to a new state of the art building funded by the widow of Emil Haury, who was one of the finest archaeologists of the Southwest. We were awed by the vast number of wood samples on shelves and in boxes, in several rooms, from all over the world. We learned that the results of evaluations are stored, not on computers, but on index cards in a card file a room away from the wood samples. We saw sample boxes from sites in our area and learned that the oldest date from our area is 332 BC at the Falls Creek Rock Shelter. The lab, through the study of evidence of fire on long-lived trees, has been instrumental in convincing the Forest Service that fire has been a natural, frequent and beneficial occurrence for millennia, and that our fire suppression practices have led to the large, devastating fires we now face every year. We toured the Mission San Xavier del Bac, just south of Tucson, also known as "The White Dove of the Desert", with a wonderful guide who told us so much about the history of the Jesuit Father Eusebio Kino who founded so many missions in the Pimeria Alta, the "upper land of the Pimas". This lovely mission was completed in 1797 by the Franciscans, and still serves the Tohono O'Odham people as a parish church. The interior of the church has been lovingly, painstakingly restored by highly trained art conservators from Italy. Restoration and conservation of the exterior of the mission continues. The paintings and statues in the church were visual aids the Franciscans used to teach the native people about their religion. We moved on to Tubac for a more modern historical event, the Santa Cruz Valley Car Nuts annual collectors car show featuring around 500 cars displayed at the Tubac Golf Resort. Okay, so this is Marlo's favorite event. The girls explored Tubac while the guys enjoyed the car show. We drove to Tumacacori to visit the Tumacacori National Historical Park. This park preserves the sites and remains of three of Father Eusebio Kino's missions, Calabazas, Guevavi and Tumacacori. Another wonderful guide gave us a great tour and explained the history, construction and later uses of the Tumacacori mission. In 1801 Franciscan Friar Narciso Gutierrez began construction of the beautiful church that remains in ruins at Tumacacori. Construction was nearly completed in 1828 when the Mexican government expelled all Spanish-born priests leaving the church in the care of the Papago governor of Tumacacori, Ramon Pamplona. In 1844 the Mexican government declared the lands of the Tumacacori village abandoned, in spite of the Papagos who remained there, and sold the lands at auction. President Roosevelt established the Tumacacori National Monument in 1908. Our last tour, with another wonderful guide, was of the Barrio de Tubac Archaeological Preserve and the Presidio de San Ignacio de Tubac. The Presidio was founded in 1752 and is the first presidio and the first permanent European settlement in what is now Arizona. The Barrio de Tubac was located with the assistance of a detailed map drawn by Joseph de Urrutia in December 1766 and January 1767. The map was in great detail and very accurately depicted the location of the ruins of the buildings located in archaeological excavations in the 1980s and early 1990s. The Presidio site features an underground glassed-in exhibit of the actual foundation of the presidio and showcases some of the artifacts found on the site.
Albuquerque Field Trip, Feb. 22-24, 2013
Marion and Andy Simon organized a delightful Albuquerque excursion for seven additional SJBAS members, some of whom traveled through snow and ice to have a wonderful dinner at the Simons' on Friday night. On Saturday morning, Catherine Baudoin, Curator of the Maxwell Museum's photo collections, led an informative tour of the Maxwell Museum's Navajo rug exhibit, "Woven Stories," together with Gwen Saul, a Ph.D. student at the U of NM. The exhibit included written comments on plaques from numerous weavers, who had had the opportunity to examine and touch the rugs on display in a seminar put on by the Maxwell, which brought the rugs to the weavers. In addition, the exhibit included photographs by John Collier, Jr., from the Maxwell's Collection. The photographs were made during the Great Depression under the auspices of the Farm Security Administration. Saturday afternoon, although the docent at the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center didn't rendezvous with our group, we had the opportunity to visit the Center's new Zuni Map Art exhibit, together with its explanatory film. We attended a dance and music performance by Shelly Morningstar and her husband, Fabian Fontinal, who performed Omaha and other Indian dances. Shelly played the bass and standard native flute and sang her own songs. Several of he group viewed the Center's excellent pottery exhibit with films about Maria of San Ildefonso Pueblo and one on the artistry of Pablita Velarde. The group enjoyed a delicious dinner at the Bravo Italian Restaurant. On Sunday, we had a snowy tour, with two volunteers from the Friends of Tijeras Pueblo, Judy Kredenburg and Bruce. Christina Sinkovec, a ranger from the neighboring US Forest Service District, was there to learn and also answer questions. Although the excavation at the Pueblo had been reburied, we learned a tremendous amount about this 14th century mountain village located on major trade routes, its history and the culture of its residents. The site and surrounding canyon areas likely were visited for thousands of years by small groups of hunters and gatherers. In the early 1300s, Tijeras Pueblo and other year-round communities were established along the east side of the Sandia and Manzano Mountain ranges. The Pueblo was continuously occupied from 1313 to 1425, with two major construction periods, with the second pueblo built in the late 1300s over parts of the original, resulting in perhaps only half as many rooms. Recent tree ring dating indicates that construction, and perhaps reconstruction, was taking place throughout the occupation period. Because the occupation of Tijeras Pueblo predated the arrival of the Spanish, the inhabitants had no horses, cattle, sheep, or pigs, nor was there any metal. Tools were made from stone, bone, and wood with sinew (tendon) and cordage used to attach components. Cordage was made from various plant materials, such as yucca fiber. Stone points were made from a variety of rock. Construction materials were largely puddled adobe and masonry, with some jacal (mud and twig). Adobe bricks were not used. We also visited the site exhibit hall and hands-on activities' space. While some members headed home, Janice Sheftel and Bob Powell met Penny Gomez to visit the wonderful basketry exhibit at the Santa Fe Indian Arts and Culture Museum.
Author and adventurer Craig Childs, who now lives in CO, gives multimedia show at the Durango Art Center after attendees first viewed The Colorado Plateau - A Storied Land. His presentation was Land of Ghosts: Travels in Ancient Places. (Summary, Durango Herald, Feb. 19, 2013) The Colorado Plateau features works by regional artists Thomas Begay, Kit Frost, Chloe Hedden, Bruce Hucko, Don Kirby, Janet Lever-Wood, Louisa McElwain, Joaquin Salazar, Serena Supplee and Jackie Weller. Childs is famous for his extended expeditions on which he searches for wilderness where others see none. His book Apocalyptic Planet was one of Maria's Bookshop's top sellers of 2012. His visit to the store last year was packed. His latest project involves several archaeological sites, about 15,000 years old. He looks for artifacts on the ground and it keeps going back further and further. Land of Ghosts isn't specific to the CO Plateau. Childs included photos and stories of mostly prehistoric SW culture, the Sierra Madre region of northern Mexico, 14,000-year-old cave dwellings in OR and a pit in TX with 15,000-year-old stone jewels and mastodon remains. Cliff dwellers such as the ancestral Puebloans, who lived in the Four Corners about 1,200 years ago, are newcomers by comparison. His talk was a tour of the past and what kind of ancestry we're living in.
The World Until Yesterday: What Can We Learn from Traditional Societies?, by Jared Diamond, Illustrated. 499 pp. Viking. $36. (Summary/ E-mailed by Paul Dittmer) Among the Pirahã Indians of Brazil. women give birth alone, even dying from a breech birth, without help, because the Pirahã believe that people have to endure hardships on their own. The Siriono Indians of Bolivia leave elders, gravely ill, to die when the Tribe has to move on. They leave a fire and some water and walk away without saying goodbye, leaving bones to be picked clean by scavenging animals. Tribes at a subsistence level don't have the resources to care for people who can't keep up. Diamond is a geographer at UCLA, whose earlier books Guns, Germs, and Steel and Collapse discusses how geography and environment shape the destiny of nations. In this book, he holds up tribal societies as a mirror for our own lives. Through the millennia, different tribal groups have conducted a series of experiments on how to solve essential human problems. What have they discovered and what might we learn from them? The most obvious difference between us and them is that pre-state tribal societies are more violent. Especially in fertile areas where land is valuable, people often can't wander beyond closely prescribed borders. Most people in nation states feel qualms about killing another human being and have been taught to restrain their lust for revenge. People in many tribal societies do not share these attitudes. This is one way in which modern life is better than traditional life. This book reminds us of the importance of geography, and how important history and culture are, and how certain core conceptions -- our notions of individual agency, our assumptions about time and space, our moral intuitions about killing and individual dignity -- have been shaped by our civilizations.
Archaeology Near and Far: Southwest
Basketmaker Period (1000 BC - AD 500) Revisited. (Summary, The Surveyor) Mona Charles, FLC, began working with the Basketmakers at the Darkmold Site in 1988, accidentally when landowners discovered a major Basketmaker II site on their property. She has continued excavations each summer through 2008. This site has produced the most significant collection of Basketmaker II artifacts and chronometric dates since the excavations by recreational archaeologists Zeke Flora and Helen Sloan Daniels with subsequent excavations by Earl Morris and Robert Burgh at the Falls Creek Rockshelters and Talus Village. Excavated in the late 1930s, these two sites became the "type" sites for what is now called the Eastern Basketmakers. The Basketmakers were perhaps first discovered by the Wetherhill brothers as they excavated in the dry shelters of SE UT. Later, archaeologists Alfred Kider, Samuel Guernsey, Jesse Nusbaum and Earl Morris excavated at sites in the heartland of the Basketmakers, with such names as White Dog Cave, Cave Du Pont, Mummy Cave and Broken Flute Cave. These expeditions amassed a wealth of artifacts. It wasn't until the Durango sites were excavated that solid evidence for Basketmaker houses was discovered. Burned foundation logs from the Durango sites dated through the nascent field of dendrochronology showed the Basketmakers were living in shallow pit houses at least a hundred years BCE.
Surveying South Pawnee Buttes. (Summary, The Surveyor) A nine-day PAAC 2012 Summer Training Survey was held on state-owned trust lands, surrounded by the Pawnee Nat'l Grassland and private land, conducted by Kevin Black, the Asst. State Archaeologist and PAAC Coordinator. For the site survey, the idea was to have everyone walk abreast of each other, 50' apart, and look for artifacts on the surface. Each surveyor carried red pin flags, to mark artifact locations. The primary purpose of the site was to look for Native American occupation and tool-making sites. Surveyors walked along the ridge, to the NE of South Pawnee Creek, then spent a couple of hours documenting an historical site just north of a stock pond, a small, mostly circular depression a few feet deep, of unknown origin. For each site identified, prehistoric or historic, information is filled out on a variety of CO Cultural Resource Survey forms. In addition to documenting descriptive information about the site and artifacts, surveyors also created a map of the site. Then a new line was started that began at the south boundary of the survey area. In the midst of some sparse grass and prickly pear cactus, a probable mano was located as an isolated find and a few flakes from stone tool manufacturing in the area, also isolated finds, but no tools. If an isolated find is a stone tool, the crew chief makes a decision whether to collect it or not. Flakes and other tool-making debitage are typically not collected and left in situ. Several small pieces of petrified wood, unworked, were located. Heading north toward South Pawnee Creek and the stock pond, we encountered a large group of abandoned, decades old, rusty farm machinery, lined up in a row, mostly from 1940s/1950s era. Moving north, we found quite a few flakes on a small promontory. Kevin Black's crew, working in the northern area, in the vicinity of the Pawnee Buttes, collected a scraper and a projectile point. Lighting changes during the day affect what is seen on the ground. In the early morning, at noon, and in the afternoon, some artifacts are more easily seen than others because the light is coming from a different angle. To map the site, the crews used a Brunton compass on a tripod for bearings to the artifacts, and filled out the various CO Cultural Resource Survey forms, which included feature and terrain descriptions, as well as artifact quantity, type, and material, and recorded additional information about the site, such as management and administrative data experiences.
San Juan Arborglyphs: Pine-Piedra Stock Driveway. (Summary, Uncompahgre Journal, Chipeta Chapter, Feb. 2013) Through a grant, the San Juan Mountains Association will begin the second-phase of archeological work on Moonlick Park and Arborglyphs, building on earlier SHF funded research at the two sites along the Pine-Piedra Stock Driveway. Archaeologists and historians will collect contextual and interpretive information through research and oral histories with Hispanic carvers, for ultimate use in "The Wooden Canvas: Hispanic Arborglyphs Along the Pine-Piedra Stock Driveway," a public collection, including an exhibit, lecture series and book, about early 1900s Hispanic folk carvings created by sheepherders.
Volcanic Activity Once Abundant in SW CO; Helped Shape many Landforms in Area. (Summary, Cortez Journal, Feb. 23, 2013) There are visible signs of ancient volcanoes all around the south San Juan Mountains. Although many landforms were carved by glaciers, signs of volcanic activity are plentiful. The La Plata Mountains were formed similarly to the La Sal and Henry mountain ranges of UT as well as the Sleeping Ute Mountain, by laccolithic intrusions, an intrusion of molten igneous rock that makes its way up from the mantle through cracks in the crust but does not break the surface. The intrusion pushes up the top layer(s), thus creating a mushroom of igneous rock below the surface -- a pluton -- similar to an above-ground shield volcano. The intrusions in the La Platas had enough power to uplift the layers of sedimentary rock above, but not enough force to burst through the rocks like a major volcanic explosion. Both the top sedimentary layers and the rocks of the igneous intrusions are visible in the La Platas. Hesperus Mountain is most easily recognized by its thick sedimentary bands. Spiller Peak is mainly igneous. Its crumbly summit is a result of magma that cooled quickly. Engineer Mtn and its neighbor, Graysill Mtn were formed by processes different from the mountains around them. The summits of Engineer and Graysill are made of volcanic sill, which forms from a horizontal intrusion -- think "window sill." The igneous rack that comprises the summits of these peaks cooled quickly, creating the fragile rocks we now see piled in a loose jumble at the summits. Quick cooling also created the vertical columns of rock visible below the loose summits. According to this fact page about columnar joining (http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/education/facts/col_joint.html), "The columns form due to stress as the lava cools. The lava contracts as it cools, forming cracks. Once the crack develops it continues to grow. The growth is perpendicular to the surface of the flow." This helps to explain why vertical columns formed due to a horizontal sill intrusion. The history of many peaks in SW CO contains some sort of volcanic component. There is a caldera near Silverton. Much of the history of the San Juan Mountain range was affected by huge volcanic ash flows. Loads of volcanic history in CO are compiled here: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/LivithWith/VolcanicPast/Places/volcanic_past_colorado.html.
In Early Winter 1912, Burro-packer Olga Little Rescued 18 Starving Miners from Neglected Mine in La Plata Mountains. (Summary, Andy Gulliford, Durango Herald, February 12, 2012) In the entire Rocky Mountains, she was the only woman packer who used a burro string to haul in supplies and haul out ore. Most of the trails she used were above 10,000'. Many of the mines were above 11,000'. Named in her honor, Olga Little Mountain rises to 11,426' in the La Platas, east of Kennebec Pass. She packed from 1909 into the 1940s, taking supplies into all the La Plata mines including the Mayday, Incas, Jumbo, Lucky Moon, Gold King, Idaho, Tomahawk and the Bessie G., which was the farthest up Kennebec Pass above Junction Creek. The Rio Grande Southern RR, with a line to Mayday, freighted in coal, which railroaders offloaded. Little charged $5/ton to bring coal up to the mines with her two strings of 20 burros. She'd load each burro with three 70-pound sacks, one on each side and one on top. Little lifted and loaded those heavy sacks without help. She also packed in heavy cables for tram systems, 25-foot foils of 2-inch thick cables with lead splices. She loaded one coil per burro, then played out the cable to the next burro until with her entire pack string she could haul hundreds of feet of taut steel line. She packed in food, whiskey, newspapers and dynamite and packed out gold and silver ore down to the smelter at the site of the current Durango dog park. Born in Germany in 1883, Olga and her family immigrated to Phillips County, near Holyoke in NE CO, to take up a sod hose homestead. At age 12-13, she and her brother rode burros 150 miles from Chama, NM to Durango, and her family later settled in Animas City. Little packed on a regular schedule. When miners knew she was coming, they'd shave and put on clean overalls. Little was used to the cold and sleet, but miners working in tunnels and adits were accustomed to a standard interior mine temperature of 40-50 degrees. In the deep snowy winters of 1912, Little knew that without food, the miners would have to leave; so she spaced the miners in between her trusty burros and tied them all together in an attempt to walk to Transfer seven miles away, with the miners clinging to the burros' tails. In snow, sleet and zero visibility it took from 7 a.m. until 11 p.m. to make the trip. Though some men suffered frostbite, all agreed they would have died but for Olga Little.
St. Patrick’s Disaster of 1906: Avalanches Kill 20 Miners around Silverton. (Summary, Durango Herald, March 17, 2012) Major avalanches killed 20 in the highest single-day death toll from such incidents in Silverton’s history. The worst slide was at the Shenandoah-Dives Mine in Arrastra Gulch, where 12 men died. Conditions for the avalanches were set up by heavy snowfall followed by several days of sun and warm temperatures. Survivor accounts told a story of devastation by nature and camaraderie among men. W.N. (Bill) Hall survived the Shenandoah-Dives slide. In a Silverton Standard article, published April 7, 1906, he recounted the ordeal. “The slide struck us with the swiftness of a thunderbolt. We were struggling like drowning men – swept along, sometimes on top, sometimes underneath, helpless as a feather in a whirlwind.” Hall was pulled out of the snow and rescued by another survivor. In many cases, men were buried on top of one another. Eight men from the Shenandoah-Dives Mine were spared. Green Mountain Mill in Cunningham Gulch has six fatalities. The gulch, almost four miles long, experienced an unbroken series of slides that left a pile of snow 150 feet deep. Another snow slide came down on the “Silver Wing Property” in Burns Gulch. A log cabin lay in its path. Beverly Rich, with the San Juan County Historical Society, said in an interview that the gulch was located above Eureka, which at the time was a sizable town. It now is a ghost town. In addition to the human toll, much mining equipment was lost in the slides. The Iowa Mill “was knocked to pieces.” The Highland Mary boarding house and engine room and the bunk house of the Anglo-Saxon in Cement Creek both were swept away.